Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Essay about Critical Thinking A Necessary Tool for...

Abstract This paper will define the meaning of critical thinking. I will provide an example of a personal experience when critical thinking had to be used. This paper will also examin the benefits and importance of using critical thinking during the decision-making process. What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is an essential tool to good decision-making. Everyone has biases or prejudices which can hinder good decision making. Critical thinking varies depending on the underlying motivation. When decisions are based on selfish intentions; they are often marked by manipulation of ideas to service ones own interest. To be an effective critical thinker one has to have the ability to look at the facts and make a decision based†¦show more content†¦Thinking is viewed as a natural thing to do, but to a large extent ones thinking is biased, distorted, partially uninformed or prejudiced. Some of the personal barriers to critical thinking includes; enculturation, self concept, ego defense, rationalization, self serving biases, and emotional influences (Kirby and Goodpaster, 2007). Critical thinking is defined as, the process of gathering information, analyzing it in different ways, and evaluating it for the purposes of gaining understanding, solving a problem, or making a decision (Carter, Bishop, and Kravits, 2007). Critical thinking involves more than just thinking. It is a process that has to be practiced in order to be perfected. One has to be able to set aside any personal barriers in order to make the best decision. Critical Thinking Personal Experiences Critical thinking in the nursing field is essential. Critical thinking for a nurse helps ensure safe nursing practices and quality patient care. As a nurse I have to be able to listen to what the patient is saying and ask the right questions to be able to provide the best care for that particular patient. Some patients are very open and they will tell you everything you need to know and others are not so open and I have to dig for answers and be careful not to offend them. Before moving I had the pleasure to work as a hospice nurse. As a hospice nurse you have to have good critical thinking skills because in many cases the nurseShow MoreRelatedCritical Thinking in Decision Making Essay848 Words   |  4 PagesCritical Thinking in Decision Making Debra Rodriguez MGT 350 August 6, 2012 Karen Allen Critical thinking is a mode of thinking where one improves his or her quality by applying intellectual skills to elements of decisions to make solid decisions to develop intellectual traits. It is important to enhance ones critical thinking skills to improve decision-making capabilties in life and create new opportunities. Critical thinking is the ability of evaluating and assessing thoughts with the aimRead MoreCritical Thinking1125 Words   |  5 PagesCritical Thinking Article Review Over the last thirty years, the health care system has incurred dramatic changes, resulting in new advances in technology and medical theories. Greater demand for quality care by consumers, more knowledgeable patients, remarkable disease processes, shorter hospitalizations, and the continuing pressure to lower health care costs are all contributing factors in the necessary changes to the nursing practice. In order for nurses to deliver optimum care, they must developRead MoreEssay on What is Critical Thinking?1082 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is Critical Thinking? Is the process of conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and /or evaluating information gathered by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication, as a guide to belief and action (Scriven Paul, n.d.). When one applies critical thinking more ideas are develop, fewer mistakes are made and better decisions are reached. When people instead of using critical thinking act on beliefs or without giv ing it a second thought, the end results are poorRead MoreEssay about Critical Thinking: Strategies in Decision Making1010 Words   |  5 PagesCritical Thinking: Strategies in Decision Making Critical thinking is a process of applying various skills to analyze information. Critical thinking uses rationality to distinguish between emotion and fact. This paper will discuss the definition of critical thinking, and the skills it takes to think critically. It will also provide an example of critical thinking applied to my current working environment. Finally this paper will discuss the importance and benefits of critical thinking inRead MoreThinking Critically Simulation Paper1098 Words   |  5 PagesCritical thinking is essential in business and in every aspect of life. The more time spent thinking critically about an issue or problem allows the thinker time to generate a response and a course of action. A person that thinks critically about a decision before acting has the best chance of getting optimal results. Team-A has completed the Thinking Critically simulation and has reviewed the results as a group determining that in business, thinking critically can make t he difference between successRead MoreDecision-Making Model Analysis Paper1526 Words   |  7 PagesDecision-Making Model Analysis Paper Hal E. Bat University Of Phoenix Critical Thinking: Strategies in Decision-Making MGT350 Daryl Korinek Jan 06, 2006 Decision-Making Model Analysis Paper Introduction In order to master critical thinking, the ability to question information and solve problems must be present. The crucial steps that lead to successful decision-making is not based solely on our skills and abilities, but on the strategies that help us get there. All these steps combinedRead MoreTaking Charge: Guidance Notes for First Responders in an Emergency1115 Words   |  4 Pageswith proper training, methods to make proper decisions in highly time sensitive moments. Also, allocating resources properly to address the situation at hand is necessary in order to best utilize these resources for success. Typically, unlike the military, first-responders operate on a majority rules basis. Having authority or taking authority to act is a necessary step to leading a team, and therefore having a strong sense of decision-making is critical to securing the confidence of ones first-responderRead MoreSystems Thinking1469 Words   |  6 PagesSystems Thinking and Organizational Performance Systems Thinking provides a necessary conceptual base and a powerful tool-set for working the most complex issues that confront us as individuals, in teams, or in organization (Systems Thinking Collaborative, 2001, p. 1). Additional, this theory provides ways to view the world as a whole and enables a new level of understanding of why things are as they are. Performance management includes activities to ensure that goals are consistently beingRead MoreCom 420 - Critical Thinking and Creative Problem Solving Essay800 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction This paper will introduce critical thinking and creative problem solving with an emphasis on the latter. In doing so, it will attempt to describe any similarities and differences between the two. Critical thinking is the process of rationally analyzing and attempting to solve a problem accurately without guessing. The first step in critical thinking is to understand the problem thoroughly which will allow you to restate the problem in different ways to learn about it and other relatedRead MoreMaking Decisions Within The State Of Alaska1122 Words   |  5 PagesMaking decisions within the State of Alaska, Department of Corrections requires followings explicit legal standards (State of Alaska, 2015b). Every aspect of a decision will be subject to criticisms of management, staff, legal sources, and a civilian populace who may weigh in. Additionally, every decision is exceedingly scrutinized after the fact due to the environment in which effects are felt. The diverse population that is subject to the result of most training, the delivery, manner in which

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Term Nigga Is Used By The Younger Members Of The...

The term â€Å"nigga† is commonly used by the younger members of the American society. The term derives from the racial slur â€Å"nigger† that was used to stigmatize African Americans. Nigger is a noun in the English language. Nigger is said to be derived from â€Å"neger† which was the English pronunciation of â€Å"negre† in French which is derived from negro, the Spanish word for black. There is a lot of controversy around the distinction between the words nigga and nigger. Many feel both are derogative terms. Some African Americans only find offense if the word is used by someone not particularly in their ethnic group. While others feel the word is still hurtful and disrespectful. The word nigga is often considered a term of endearment among the young†¦show more content†¦If it was used in a friendly manner as in to identify a friend the word must not be used. For example, in today’s time many rappers in the music industry embrace the word and use it casually. Hip-Hop culture has influenced the mainstream use of this belittling term. The problem with this is that it can only make racial slurs more socially acceptable. Some people take offense to the use of this word while others don’t care. For instance, in 2001 when Jennifer Lopez released her song â€Å"I’m real† featuring Ja Rule she used the word â€Å"nigga† in the song. For some people they honestly did not mind, but the majority of people took offense to her use of the word and went crazy about it. She took a lot of flak for the use of the word although she did not intend to offend anyone she still did because the word is a racial slur. The only acceptable time the word should be used is to educate people on the historical context of the word. The history behind the word has a strong shadow over the word which will never fade, which is why people ought to never forget the history behind the term. When the Atlantic Slave trade began the term nigger was used to describe black people. Throughout history, most minority groups were branded by degrading terms. Nigger was and still is a term of disrespect. Slavery contorted the term from the Spanish definition to its dark degrading hateful insult for African Americans. This slur

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ehrs Will Benefit the Medical Field - 2578 Words

[pic] How EHR’s will Benefit The Medical Field [pic] Abstract EHR, known as electronic health record, refers to some systematic collection of an individual’s or a population’s electronic health information. The record is in a digital format which is theoretically sharable across various health care settings. Sometimes, this sharing can happen by way of network-connected, information systems or some other information networks. The electronic health record may include a wide range of data, like demographics, the patient’s medical history, their medication and allergies their immunization status, lab test results, vital signs, statistics like weight and age, and billing information. These systems are designed to†¦show more content†¦Since the moment that technological advances changed data entry from the use of punch cards to keyboards, as well as data display from showing printed results to the use of video display terminals, innovative physicians around the country have continued seizing the opportunities to improv e delivery of healthcare (Fridsma, 2009). Some well-known efforts made include: †¢ The Lockheed Corporation, in 1971, created a system that eventually came to be known as Eclipsys for the El Camino Hospital, that featured computerized physician order entry and allowed multiple, simultaneous users. †¢ In the early 70s, the University of Utah, Latter Day Saints Hospital, and 3M created the Health Evaluation system through a Logical Processing system. Though each of the designers of these systems had different ways of describing their motivations, their objective was to solve two problems: †¢ Eliminating paper records logistical problems by making the clinical data immediately available to the authorized users regardless of where they are, eliminating undecipherable or unavailable. †¢ Reducing clinical book keeping work required to manage the patients eliminating cases of misdiagnoses in the laboratories. The biggest challenge that presented itself to the design of EHR systems in the 90s was creating user heterogeneity with the advent of the personal computer. The differences in the nature ofShow MoreRelatedImplementing Electronic Charts For Patients1398 Words   |  6 PagesThe healthcare environment has grown more complex and continues to evolve every day (McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). For example, we use computers for charting, accessing patient medical records, and for medication administration. The goal of the increasing technology in nursing is to ultimately improve the health of populations and communication between all involved in the care of patients. Technology is constantly changing in nursing and we have to change with it. Technology can have a potentiallyRead MorePaper1172 Words   |  5 PagesMedicaid and Medicare place such high emphasis on this transition that monetary incentive including higher reimbursement rates were offered to encourage the change. The incomplete transition has left many individuals who currently practice in the field with an uncertainty of the process. The lack of communication between EHRs and paper based documentation increases the risk for mistakes. According to a study of literature it has been reported that 12.6 percent of hospitals reported no implementationRead MoreHow Technology Is Transforming Healthcare1342 Words   |  6 Pageshealthcare settings for the purpose of improving the outcome and overall quality of care, and its use is having a transformational effect on medical practice. One of the most prevalent implementations of technology in healthcare is the electronic health care record (EHR), a computer based system for managing patient information, which ha s been proven to reduce medical errors. Further implementation of technology has also been shown to improve methods of time management, freeing nurses from time-consumingRead MoreElectronic Medical Records vs. Paper Charting1663 Words   |  7 PagesElectronic Medical records vs. Paper Medical Charts By: Diedre Fitzgerald Rasmussen College Summer 2012 English Composition; Professor Pauley Electronic Medical records vs. Paper Medical Charts It is no secret that the medical profession deals with some of population’s most valuable records; their health information. Not so long ago there was only one method of keeping medical records and this was utilizing paper charts. These charts, although still used in many practices today, have slowly beenRead MoreA Brief Note On The Electronic Health Records Essay1484 Words   |  6 PagesClinical documentation has been used throughout the healthcare to analyze care provided to a patient, communicate important information between healthcare providers and patients, and provide medical records that will help patients track their conditions. The Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have revolutionized the process of clinical documentation through direct care to the patient. This electronic health record is a new technology that helps maintain patient’s privacy. Both computers and EHRs canRead MoreThe Electronic Health Records ( Ehrs ) Essay1644 Words   |  7 PagesClinical Documentation has been used throughout the healthcare to analyze care provided to a patient, communicate important information between healthcare providers and patients, and provide medical records that will help patients track their conditions. The Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have revolutionized the process of clinical documentation through direct care to the patient. This electronic health record is a new technology that helps maintain patient’s privacy and to direct care of the patientRead MoreInformation Systems : Electronic Health Record2124 Words   |  9 PagesHealth Record (EHR) is an electronic version of a patient’s medical history. This record is kept current by the provider and includes administrative information, clinical data, demographic info, progress notes, medications, vitals, past medical history, immunizations, lab data and laboratory reports (CMS.gov, 2012). The EHR provides access to information and has the potential to streamline clinicians’ workflow. The EHR can support medical decisions by providing clinicians with current informationRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On Healthcare1671 Words   |  7 PagesIn today’s day and age we are a society that revolves around technology, with this being said as technology changes so does our society. In today’s healthcare fields the same is true healthcare revolves around technology and its advances. These technologies play a major role in the way we do things in healthcare and also how we give care to patients. One major technology that is currently revolutionizing healthcare is telehealth. The concept of telehealth has many different aspects which are helpingRead MoreThe Effects Of Electronic Health Records On Patient Care2249 Words   |  9 PagesThe Effects of Electronic Health Records on Patient Care Electronic health records (EHR) is an electronic version of patient charting. It is used to safely store information related to patient’s care, such as past medical history, surgeries, allergies, medication profile, demographics, laboratory and x-ray results, and personal information. All this information is readily available and shared among other authorized healthcare professionals across different health care settings. These records systemsRead MoreElectronic Health Records Systems And Healthcare Facilities1628 Words   |  7 Pagesand health administrators, more and more healthcare facilities, are deciding on the adoption of different kinds of systems to assist in patient care quality. There are many types of electronic health record systems and each of them comes with their benefits and drawbacks. When implementing EHR systems, managers take major risks for their facilities by evaluating what can affect them in a negative way and choosing one to adopt. This research wil l evaluate the impact that certain electronic health record

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Classic Badges Company

Question: Tasks 1 1.1: In Setting up Classic Badges Company, what are the major range of decisions to be taken? Discuss 1.2: Identify and examine the kind of information and knowledge needed to ensure that an effective decisions are taken. 1.3: List and assess internal and external sources of information required and justify their suitability and reliability for this project. 1.4: Recommend any improvements in the use of different kinds or sources information and knowledge for the setting up of this project. Tasks 2 2.1: There are several stakeholders in involved in this project, what contributions would you expect from the different stakeholders during a specific decision making process? 2.2: An effective business relationship with these stakeholders is important. Discuss methods of contact that will enhance business relationship with stakeholders. 2.3: Prepare a plan on how to involve those identified in the decision making for this project. You may consider a stakeholder communication plan or a decision making action plan. 2.4: To improve on involving others in the decision making process for this project, it is important to improve on your personal networking skills. What strategy would you put in place to enhance your personal networking skills? Tasks 3 3.1: Report on existing processes of communication in this organisation. 3.2: Identify the pitfalls existing in the current communication processes and design ways to improve it. 3.3: Recommend the improvements that need to be implemented to ensure greater integration of systems of communication in that organisation. 3.4: Create a personal plan to improve own communication skills. Tasks 4 4.1: Report on existing approaches to the collection, formatting, storage and dissemination of information and knowledge in this organisation. 4.2: Discuss the appropriate changes that need to be carried out to improve the collection, formatting, storage and dissemination of information and knowledge in this organisation. 4.3: Recommend a strategy that needs to be implemented to improve access to systems of information and knowledge in this organisation. Answer: Task 1: 1.1: Major range of decision to be taken in setting in setting up new business:s Classic Badges Company owned by the Charles Gillbeck is in the early stage of setting up new business and they want to sell custom made badges to the local companies. Prior to setting up new business the owner of the company should have to think of the limited knowledge of the owner in the domain of the business (Caro, 2015). As the Company is going to sell badges they have to think that whether the product has a demand in the market or not; and who will be the customer of their product. Before starting the business the company should decide on the cost of the project. If the cost of the project is within budget then only the company will start the business (Dumitru, 2015). 1.2: Information and knowledge to ensure effective decision has been taken: In order to ensure effective decision-making, the company should target the school, colleges, and health care customer for their product. The cost of the project should be within the budget of the business. If the product has a high demand it will increase the return on investment which will ultimately be helpful in running the business (Redmond, 2015). It is essential to have the information of the competitors. The company has to survey the market about which company is selling the badge products (Hernes and Sobieska-Karpińska, 2015). By analysis the products of the competitors company Classis Badge Company should justify their product. 1.3: External and internal sources of information of the business: External sources of information: Information that is supplied by the government should be received always from the reliable sources. Changes in the rules of the business should also be included in the business for the long term sustainability. The Company should try to gain information from the trading group for its sustainability and reliability. The trading groups are the business groups that operate within the similar sector but not in the same location (Matt et al. 2015). They operate same kind of business. The Company should try getting the help of database to increase the knowledge of the business. Internal sources: The Company should try to decide, whether they would be able to afford the budget needed by the business for their survival. The Company should try to analyze whether the personnel are able to give their best in achieving the goal of the company (Dumitru, 2015). Personnel database of the company would provide such kind of data. Administration information is needed by the organization for linking the external information to the internal information for achieving the reliability of the company. Databases used by the organization helps the administration of the organization in coordinating external information with internal information. 1.4: Recommendation for improvement on the use of different sources of information and knowledge: Online information can be use to have the greater speed as well as scope (Fei and Chung, 2015). There are many websites available that provides information about the business. Social media could also be beneficial for the company because the famous business persons sometimes post their innovative business ideas on the social media site (Reynolds and Yetton, 2015). The company can use this innovative business idea in forming their new business ideas for their sustainability. The company can use media channel as their business source. Various TV and media channel provides information about innovative business ideas (UENO, 2015). Task 2: 2.1: Stakeholders contribution to the business: The employees should interact with the customers on a daily basis for creating a good relation with the customers (Rast, 2013). The stock holder should provide money in setting up new business and for launching new badges to the marketplace. The products of the company should meet the needs of the customers (Asiyai, 2014). The customer of the company should provide feedback on the improvement of the business. In order to fill the order of the company on time the vendors of the company should provide the raw materials on time. If any key raw material is missing during the production time it cause delayed in providing badges on time. 2.2: Methods that will enhance business relationship with stakeholders: In order to make the stakeholders of this company engaged in the business, members should talk to the stakeholders about the scope of the projects and benefits of the project. The company should seek the inputs of the stakeholders during planning of the project (Matt et al. 2015). It is the most effective method of enhancing relation with the stakeholders. If any stakeholders raise any issues the company should clarify those issues as soon as possible. 2.3: Stakeholder communication Plan: The first step in preparing the communication plan with the stakeholder the company first need to prepare objective for the communication that will be should be specific, achievable, and realistic. It is expected that the company would provide right messages to the stakeholders for its reliability. The company should decide which stakeholder should be given priority first and should give them additional key messages (Ngai and Singh, 2015). In order to reduce complexity the company should allocate the responsibility to each stakeholder (Ruehl and Ingenhoff, 2015). The Company should asses the result of communication with the stakeholder in a regular basis. 2.4: Strategy in enhancing personal networking skills: The company should make the other stakeholder realize about the goal of the business then they can be more involved in the decision making process. One should be engage in talking with stakeholders and listen to what they say. Training for emotional intelligence and social style can help in enhancing in this process. Prior to go to any event one should research the venue and the people. He should indentify who will be interested in listening to his speak (Dumitru, 2015). Information Technology would be very much helpful in enhancing the networking skill of the team member and they should connect with the people through Linkedin and Twitter (Hafer and Jones, 2014). The team members, apart from getting information from others should also share information and should assess the network to ensure that the networking strategy in accordance to the goal of the organization. Task 3: The sports merchandise has a great demand in the market and the Pipedream.com.Inc Company is meeting the demand of the people through their products. The company is an internet based brand who sells their merchandise through the online market. The mission of this company is to showcase the entertainment and also the adventure associated with the sports. 3.1: The Process of Communication in an Organization The communication in the Pipedream is neither diluted nor exaggerated or even distorted. The ideas are communicated in the organization, and the communication is a two way process here. The exact idea is being transmitted to the receiver who then provides feedback to the transmitter. Pipedream also takes into consideration the communication between the customer and the company. The customer response is something to which Pipedream provided utmost importance (Hafer, and Jones, 2014). 3.2: Pitfall Existing in Current Process and the Ways to Improve It. Pipedream has brought some new changes in the office administrative which the employees have not accepted willingly. The problem took place because the company failed to understand the culture of the office and also failed to have an effective communication with the employee. If the company had negotiated well, with the employees, along with having a conversation with the customers then such a problem could have easily being avoided. They could have a conversation with the employees, now also, so that they could easily come out from the problem (Ruehl, and Ingenhoff, 2015). 3.3: Improvements Needed for Greater System of Communication in the Organization The improvement in communication in an organization will only be there if the administrative does not over-estimate the quality of their employee. The company at times over loads the employees with too much of information, and that create a communication problem between the management and the employee. The commitments from the part of the business director are needed, only then creative problems will be solved and deadlines will be met (Rast, 2013). 3.4: Plan for Improving Personal Communication According to UENO (2015), the improvement of the personal communication depends largely on the improvement of the participatory skills of the employees. The participatory skills include creating healthy work relationship, as well as nurturing it. The employees should also be active participants of those social events which are related to their working environments. The employees should also readily involve themselves in both formal and informal group communication, as well as experiences. Task 4 4.1: How to collect, store, disseminate and format both information and knowledge? The Pipedream Company to collect information as well as to store and format them used an effective and an extensive method. The method that was taken by the Company has numerous other methods too, such as the method of observation, survey, experiment, transaction processing, and publication as well as with the help of the government agencies, gathered information. The dissemination of the information has helped the target audience to be aware of the product and also helped them to understand it and also adopt the product for their use (Redmond, 2015). 4.2: Changes Needed to Improve the Information and the Knowledge Fei and Chung (2015), said that the company should have information that are content oriented; the content-oriented information are also index information. The main sources of index information are the libraries and the digital libraries, and also the web sources and the catalogues. After the information is gathered it should be stored in the database for the target audience. 4.3: Strategy Require For Having Better Access to the Information and Knowledge The age is a technical age where the most important way to access information is through the web sources; and along with it you should also have the information on the print magazines and pamphlets. Another most important way of accessing information is through the help of the stylistic language; this is known as the intellectual way of accessing the information (Liu and Huang, 2015). Reference List Asiyai, R. (2014). Improving Quality Higher Education in Nigeria: The Roles of Stakeholders.IJHE, 4(1). Caro, J. (2015). What Is Insufficient about Validation?.Medical Decision Making. Dumitru, M. (2015). Important Elements in Consumer's Decision-making Process.Procedia Economics and Finance, 22, pp.780-786. Fei, X. and Chung, J. (2015). IT for future e-business management.Information Systems and e-Business Management, 13(2), pp.191-192. Hafer, R. and Jones, G. (2014). Are entrepreneurship and cognitive skills related? Some international evidence.Small Bus Econ, 44(2), pp.283-298. Hernes, M. and Sobieska-Karpińska, J. (2015). Application of the consensus method in a multiagent financial decision support system.Information Systems and e-Business Management. Liu, Q. and Huang, C. (2015). Modeling Business Land Use Equilibrium for Small Firms Relocation and Consumers Trip in a Transportation Network.Networks and Spatial Economics. Matt, C., Hess, T. and Benlian, A. (2015). Digital Transformation Strategies.Bus Inf Syst Eng. Ngai, C. and Singh, R. (2015). Using Dialectics to Build Leader-Stakeholder Relationships: An Exploratory Study on Relational Dialectics in Chinese Corporate Leaders' Web-Based Messages.International Journal of Business Communication. Rast, W. (2013). The roles of stakeholders in lake basin management: Fundamental, but often overlooked.Lakes Reservoirs: Research Management, 18(1), pp.1-1. Redmond, O. (2015). A window onto the basic elements of perceptual decision making in the human brain.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9. Reynolds, P. and Yetton, P. (2015). Aligning business and IT strategies in multi-business organizations.J Inf Technol, 30(2), pp.101-118. Ruehl, C. and Ingenhoff, D. (2015). Communication management on social networking sites.JCOM, 19(3), pp.288-302. UENO, Y. (2015). Keys to success of business research - tips and useful contents : Part 10: Sources of global information.joho kanri, 57(10), pp.747-754.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Comparing Person-based Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy The WritePass Journal

Comparing Person-based Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Abstract Comparing Person-based Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy AbstractIntroduction  Therapeutic relationshipThe role of the client and the counsellorStrengths of cognitive behavioural therapy  Weaknesses of cognitive behavioural therapyStrengths of person-centred therapyWeaknesses of person-centred therapyConclusionReferencesRelated Abstract This paper presents a comparison of two therapeutic concepts, person-centred approach and cognitive behavioural therapy in terms of the role of counsellor and client. It specifically describes the role of the client and counsellor and then compares them accordingly. The paper will also discuss the strengths and limitations of the two approaches in order to differentiate them better. Introduction Both person-centred therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy provide support and help to patients by addressing individual matters. Both practices share the common therapeutic goal of welfare improvement. The necessity of an integrated approach to person-centred therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy has called for numerous researches to investigate the roles of the different parties (Moon, 2006). In the comparison of the two therapeutic concepts in terms of the role of counsellor and client, there is a clear difference that is well defined in the subsequent discussions. In person-centred, the patient is the expert on himself and finds his or her own way, while in CBT the counsellor is the expert and leads the patient (Branaman, 2001). The approaches also have strengths and limitations that are discusses comprehensively.   Therapeutic relationship The role of the client and the counsellor In terms of the therapeutic relationship, it is critical to make sure that the result of the therapy is effective and desirable. In relation to these two approaches of counselling, the therapeutic relationships are different from each another. In each approach, the therapist and the client have different roles to play in the processes. Therapeutic relationship in the cognitive behavioural therapy resembles that between a student and his or her teacher (Burkitt, 2008). The role of the counsellor is to provide therapeutic instructions and recommendations to the client who listens and then does exactly as they are told by the therapist. In this kind of relationship, the therapist uses directive structures in directing clients on the changes in behaviour. In this instance, the therapist acts as the point of focus since they impact much on the client’s cognitive and behavioural changes (Branaman, 2001). However, for the purposes of desirable and effective outcomes, collaboration is emphasised in the process of the therapy. The therapist employs Socratic dialogue, which is essential in supporting clients in tenets like the identification of assumptions, values and norms that have affected the emotional and psychological functionality. It involves a disciplined questioning or probing that can be used in the pursuing of thought in various directions and for several purposes, which include exploration of complex ideas (Timulak, 2005). The therapist in this approach questions the client to find out the reality of things, to open up matters together with problems, to reveal presumptions and beliefs and to find out what they know and what they do not know, as well as following out rational meanings of thought and managing the discussion (Burkitt, 2008). The technique is important in the relationship between the client and the therapist because it is disciplined, methodical and normally focuses on critical principles, matters and problems. In addition to this, the client is encouraged by the therapist to chang e these assumptions and identify an unconventional concept for the present and future living (Timulak, 2005). The therapist, in this instance, assists in the promotion of the adoption of remedial learning skills. The client, in this kind of association is always presented with new insights in relation to the matters they are experiencing and thus chooses the most effective and efficient ways of acquiring change. The cognitive behavioural therapy employs the methods that are aimed at individual counselling. It employs the Socratic Method that comprises of numerous questions to be responded to by the client. Counsellors employ various techniques of behaviour, emotion and cognition; different techniques are tailored to fit individual clients (Wetherell et al 2001). Nevertheless, the client is also given chance to ask the therapist some questions.   The approach utilises the aspect of homework or coursework that encourages the patients to practice the skills acquired. Therefore, cognitive behavioural therapy’s major technique is the ABC one, which employs the Socratic concept. On the other hand, the therapeutic relationship in the person-centred therapy is very different from the cognitive behavioural therapy. Here, the relationship between the therapist and the client is critical because the therapy focuses on the client as they turn to be the point of focus of the therapy. As a result of this, the therapist has to make sure that there is maintenance of respect, empathy and honesty towards the client (Timulak, 2005). Communication is also important in this approach particularly between the counsellor and the client. The relationship should be equal since it important in enabling change in the client. The client centred therapy approach utilises the attitudes of the therapist as the main technique. The therapist’s attitude towards the patient determines the result of the whole process.   The approach makes use of the aspects of listening and hearing and clarification of feelings and ideas (Timulak, 2005). This approach does not employ the methods that encompass directive aspects. In this therapy, there is nothing like questioning or probing, which are commonly seen or done in the cognitive behavioural therapy. Strengths of cognitive behavioural therapy Of all the known psychological therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy is the most clinically researched and examined and is generally considered as one of the most effective means of dealing with anxiety (Wetherell et al 2001). The approach is affordable and the overall procedure of treatment can last for as few as six sessions of one hour each for minor cases of anxiety, though normally in the area of 10-20 sessions. It has more appeal or attraction in the sense that it is exclusively natural and different from medication, there are no harms or side effects. The therapy is most commonly provided as a face-to-face remedy between the counsellor and patient but there is more evidence to demonstrate that its principles can be used in several other frameworks (Denscombe, 2007). For instance, interactive computerized cognitive behavioural therapy is on the rise, however, it can be given in groups or in the self-help books. These alternatives are very appealing to people that find the pr acticalities or ideas of frequent meetings with a counsellor not suiting them. CBT is an approach that is highly structured and involves the patient and the counsellor collaborating on the objectives of treatment that are specific, quantifiable, time-limited, attainable and actual or real. The patient is motivated to break down the behaviours, feelings and thoughts that confine them in an undesirable cycle and they get to learn strategies and skills that can be used in the daily life for the purposes of helping them cope better (Burkitt, 2008).   Weaknesses of cognitive behavioural therapy There are some problems with cognitive behavioural therapy that make it undesirable and unsuitable for some individuals. The concept might not be effective for individuals with mental health problems that are more complex or for those that have difficulties in learning. The major focus of the concept is usually about the patient and their capacity to change their behaviours. Some individuals feel like this is a focus that is too narrow, and disregards too many significant matters such as family, histories of self and extensive emotional issues (Moon, 2006). There is no scope within the concept for individual examination and exploration of emotions, or even of looking at the challenging issues from different angles or perspectives. For these matters to be dealt with in a proper manner, a patient would have to turn to another method, probably along the lines of the psychodynamic counselling. In order to fully gain from the cognitive behavioural therapy, the client has to make sure that they give a substantial level of commitment and dedication as well as participation. Those who argue against the therapy claim that since it only deals with the present issues, and focuses on issues that are very specific, it does not adequately address the probable causes of the mental health problems like a child who is not happy (Furedi, 2004). Sceptics of the concept claim that just by an individual being told that their perceptions of the world do not correctly reflect the reality by the concept’s counsellor are not enough to change the cognition of a patient. A criticism that is more salient for some patients might be that the counsellor initially may accomplish something of a specialist role, in the sense that they offer expertise or experience that is problem solving in the cognitive psychology (Palmer, 2001). Some individuals might also feel that the counsellor can be playing a leading role in their probing and somehow commanding in terms of their suggestions. Patients who are okay with self-examination, who readily employ the scientific approach for the exploration of their personal therapy and who put confidence in the basic theoretical method of cognitive therapy, might find the concept an important one (Gillon, 2007). However, patients that appear to be less easy or contented with any of these, or even whos e suffering is of a more common interpersonal nature, to an extent that it cannot be in a position of easily being framed as an interplay or interaction between behaviours, thoughts and emotions within a particular environment might find this kind of therapy useful to them and their conditions. Cognitive behavioural therapy has always proved to be helpful to the people that suffer from serious conditions, such as depression, uneasiness, fear or obsessive compulsive and panic (Denscombe, 2007). Strengths of person-centred therapy The concept of the approach is that the patient is the best professional or expert on themselves and has the best position of helping themselves. Its strengths include the fact that the patient is the one guiding the experience whereas the therapist reflects on what the patient is doing or saying and can paraphrase the ideas together with practices (Giddens, 2001). The therapist does not judge the patient as being right or wrong. The objective of the person-centred therapy is improving the trust of the patient in themselves and their self-confidence. It also helps them in becoming more able to live in the period, and letting go of the emotions that are unproductive and negative, such as guilt regarding the past events that are difficult to change (Branaman, 2001). Weaknesses of person-centred therapy   The fact that the approach is client-led is one of its biggest weaknesses since it is up to the patient to be in a position of processing information and making rational decisions for their personal well-being. In case the client is not capable of doing this as required by the concept, the cornerstone of a therapist not making judgments about the information provided or processed by the client can turn out to be counterproductive to the patient’s welfare (Robb et al, 2004). The approach requires creation of an extended and honest relationship with a counsellor (Bolton, 2001). The advocates of this therapy would claim that the counsellor could work faster, if that is their wish. However, if they are less than one hundred per cent committed to working via their issues, the required duration of the treatment can seriously exceed or surpass the money and time of the patient. Still the counsellors would cite that unlike cognitive behavioural therapy, the major focus of the treatment or approach is about ‘being in the period’ and the concerns of today, instead of upon long-ago past excavation (Branaman, 2001). Conclusion In the discussions above, it is apparent that these two therapies have different approaches to treating patients of the same and different problems. Both of them focus on the conscious mind, the current issues and problems that the patients might have. Both of them have a positive perception of the nature of human beings and perceive the person as not essentially being an outcome of their past experiences, but recognise that they are capable of determining their individual futures. Both approaches try to improve the welfare of patients by way of a collaborative therapeutic relationship, which allows and enhances health adaptation techniques in patients that are having psychological pain and distress in their lives. The biggest differences in the two approaches include the fact that the relationship between clients and therapists differ. The role of the counsellor in cognitive behavioural therapy is to provide therapeutic instructions and recommendations to the client who listens and then exactly does as they are told, while in the person-centred therapy, the relationship between the therapist and the client is critical because it on the client as they turn to be the point of focus. References Bolton, G. (2001). Reflective Practice: Writing and Professional Development. London: Sage. Giddens, A. (2001). Sociology (4th Ed). Cambridge: Polity (Classic Text). Gillon, E. (2007). Person-Centred Counselling Psychology. London: Sage. Branaman, A. (2001). Self and Society. Oxford: Blackwell. Burkitt, I. (2008). Social Selves: Theories of Self and Society. London: Sage. Denscombe, M. (2007). The Good Research Guide. (3rd Ed). Maidenhead: Open University Press. Furedi, F. (2004). Therapy culture. London: Routledge. Moon, J. A. (2006). Learning Journals. London: Routledge. Palmer, S. (ed.) (2001). Multicultural Counselling: A Reader. London: Sage. Robb, M. et al (eds) (2004). Communication, Relationships and Care; A Reader. London: Routledge Timulak R. (2005). Research in Psychotherapy and Counselling. London: Sage. Wetherell, M., Taylor, T., Yates, S. J. ( eds) (2001). Discourse Theory and Practice: A Reader. London: Sage.

Monday, February 24, 2020

The effect of oil price changes on stock markets of the GCC Essay

The effect of oil price changes on stock markets of the GCC - Essay Example In addition, the effects of the oil price trend to the leading beneficiary of oil in the GCC, Qatar, will be addressed. Over the past year, the price of oil has reduced significantly. Numerically, the price of oil has lost 40% of its value. The minimized price of oil has led to the global decrease of oil and oil products. The trend has been welcomed by the consumer as countries enjoy a record low price of oil. Regardless of the benefits, oil producers have suffered massively due to losses incurred. Specifically, GCC countries have recorded reduced low markets. With the price of oil dwindling further, the stock market of GCC countries face the risk of an economic crisis unless an intervention is developed to minimize the risks (Arouri, Bellalah & Nguyen, 2011). Over the years, GCC countries have been best placed to manipulate oil prices thus creating price targets that would suit their economic demands. With the new changes, how much of effect does it have on the GCC countries? The GCC comprises of six countries. They are Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab and Saudi Arabia. The six nations develop their economic background from the export of oil. The nations produce 20% of the world oil (Arouri, Bellalah & Nguyen, 2011). This places them as the greatest oil producers globally. In addition, the GCC has 47% of the global oil reserves. This is in addition to that the control 36% of the global oil exports. It is evident that the GCC is massively dependent on oil. In an argument by Arouri, Bellalah & Nguyen (2011) the influence of the oil prices has a massive influence on the stock market of the GCC countries. The change in oil prices is directly proportional to the changes in the stock market. Specifically, an increase in the oil prices influences a massive influence on the GCC stock market. This is based on that there is massive investments in the oil industry in the market. Arouri, Bellalah & Nguyen (2011) are of the assumption that the